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Table of Contents


The Internet of Things (IoT) is the extension of connectivity from humans, machines and applications to any thing that can have a unique identifier. The thing can be a synthetic or a natural object with an IP address and client. Things can communicate with each other, the cloud, humans, and applications but without direct human initiation. Billions of connected devices collect and collate data to make the physical environment smarter.

A web-enabled smart device has an embedded system consisting of, for example, processors, sensors, and a communicator. It collects data and shares it using a IoT gateway or edge server. IoT devices can process and use data locally, share it with other devices and work collaboratively or simply share it with the edge server. The edge/fog server can make decisions about which data should be processed and where processing should occur. Local filtering and processing enable real-time decision-making based on vast data streams from a profusion of sources.

The IoT requires frugal processors such as Radio Frequency Identity (RFID) chips, ubiquitous and scalable connectivity and IPv6 addressing to provide the billions of identities required. Smart homes, a network of connected devices enabling users to control their environment or delegate control to virtual assistants is the practical application of the IoT of things. The ambition is ubiquitous connectivity and the evolution of smart factories and ultimately smart cities.